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Title: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and adherence to Mediterranean diet in an adult population: the Mediterranean diet index as a pollution level index
Authors: García, Silvia
Bouzas, Cristina
Mateos, David
Pastor, Rosario
Álvarez, Laura
Rubín, María
Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel
Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Corella, Dolores
Goday, Albert
Martínez, J. Alfredo
Alonso-Gómez, Ángel M.
Wärnberg, Julia
Vioque, Jesús
Romaguera, Dora
Lopez-Miranda, José
Estruch, Ramon
Tinahones, Francisco J.
Lapetra, José
Serra Majem, Luis 
Riquelme-Gallego, Blanca
Pintó, Xavier
Gaforio, José J.
Matía, Pilar
Vidal, Josep
Vázquez, Clotilde
Daimiel, Lidia
Ros, Emilio
Bes-Rastrollo, Maira
Guillem-Saiz, Patricia
Nishi, Stephanie
Cabanes, Robert
Abete, Itziar
Goicolea-Güemez, Leire
Gómez-Gracia, Enrique
Signes-Pastor, Antonio José
Colom, Antoni
García-Ríos, Antonio
Castro-Barquero, Sara
Fernández-García, Jose C.
Santos-Lozano, José Manuel
Vázquez, Zenaida
Sorlí, José V.
Pascual, Maria
Castañer, Olga
Zulet, Maria Angeles
Vaquero-Luna, Jessica
Basterra-Gortari, F. Javier
Babio, Nancy
Ciurana, Ramon
Martín-Sánchez, Vicente
Tur, Josep A.
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
3212 Salud pública
3206 Ciencias de la nutrición
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Mediterranean Diet
Sustainability, et al
Issue Date: 2023
Journal: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 
Abstract: Background: Research related to sustainable diets is is highly relevant to provide better understanding of the impact of dietary intake on the health and the environment. Aim: To assess the association between the adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet and the amount of CO2 emitted in an older adult population. Design and population: Using a cross-sectional design, the association between the adherence to an energy-reduced Mediterranean Diet (erMedDiet) score and dietary CO2 emissions in 6646 participants was assessed. Methods: Food intake and adherence to the erMedDiet was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaire and 17-item Mediterranean questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics were documented. Environmental impact was calculated through greenhouse gas emissions estimations, specifically CO2 emissions of each participant diet per day, using a European database. Participants were distributed in quartiles according to their estimated CO2 emissions expressed in kg/day: Q1 (≤2.01 kg CO2), Q2 (2.02-2.34 kg CO2), Q3 (2.35-2.79 kg CO2) and Q4 (≥2.80 kg CO2). Results: More men than women induced higher dietary levels of CO2 emissions. Participants reporting higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole cereals, preferring white meat, and having less consumption of red meat were mostly emitting less kg of CO2 through diet. Participants with higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet showed lower odds for dietary CO2 emissions: Q2 (OR 0.87; 95%CI: 0.76-1.00), Q3 (OR 0.69; 95%CI: 0.69-0.79) and Q4 (OR 0.48; 95%CI: 0.42-0.55) vs Q1 (reference). Conclusions: The Mediterranean diet can be environmentally protective since the higher the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, the lower total dietary CO2 emissions. Mediterranean Diet index may be used as a pollution level index.
ISSN: 1476-069X
DOI: 10.1186/s12940-022-00956-7
Source: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source [EISSN 1476-069X], v. 22:1, (Enero 2023)
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