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Title: Lymnaeid Snail Vectors of Fascioliasis, Including the First Finding of Lymnaea neotropica in Ecuador, Assessed by Ribosomal DNA Sequencing in the Southern Zone Close to the Peru Border
Authors: Villavicencio, A. F.
Bargues, M. Dolores
Artigas, Patricio
Guamán, R.
Ulloa, S.M.
Romero, J.
Osca Ferriol, David 
Mas-Coma, Santiago
UNESCO Clasification: 320505 Enfermedades infecciosas
240112 Parasitología animal
Keywords: Fasciola hepatica
Fascioliasis epidemiology
Lymnaea neotropica
Lymnaea schirazensis
Lymnaeidae, et al
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Acta Parasitologica 
Abstract: Purpose: Fascioliasis is a freshwater snail-borne zoonotic trematodiasis of high pathogenicity and wide veterinary repercussions. In South America, moreover, it causes serious public health problems, with high human infection rates in Andean countries. Ecuador offers a worrying risky scenario due to its physiography, including many human infection reports and animal endemicity throughout its Andean highlands. Methods: Endemic areas with increasing animal fascioliasis were surveyed for lymnaeid snails in the province of Loja, southern Ecuador, close to the border of Peru, the country known to present the widest human fascioliasis endemic zone. The altitude of the sampling sites ranged between 150 and 1770 m a.s.l., and their location was close to human villages. Biotopes surveyed were characterized according to fascioliasis transmission needs. Results: The species Lymnaea schirazensis and L. neotropica were identified by rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 sequencing. The non-transmitting L. schirazensis combined haplotype agreed with populations of this species previously reported from northern Ecuador. The finding of the efficient vector L. neotropica is reported for the first time in Ecuador and suggests a passive introduction from neighbouring Peru by uncontrolled livestock transport. Conclusions: Rice irrigation system implementation, lymnaeid finding on Taraxacum (dandelion) plants which are consumed fresh in salads by people, and Saccharum (sugarcane), whose bark is peeled off with the teeth, represent potential infection sources for humans. The closeness to the Cajamarca human hyperendemic area in northern Peru, where the same two lymnaeids have been also found and triclabendazole resistance reported, is an additional risk to be considered regarding the livestock transborder exchange.
ISSN: 1230-2821
DOI: 10.2478/s11686-019-00104-1
Source: Acta Parasitologica [ISSN 1230-2821], v. 64, p. 839–849 (2019)
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