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Title: Antenna System for Trilateral Drone Precise Vertical Landing
Authors: Araña Pulido, Víctor Alexis 
Jiménez Yguacel, Eugenio 
Cabrera Almeida, Francisco José 
Quintana Morales, Pedro José 
UNESCO Clasification: 3325 Tecnología de las telecomunicaciones
Issue Date: 2022
Project: Sistema Autonomo Aire/Tierra de Baja Altura Para Geolocalizacion de Incendios Forestales 
Demostrador del sistema multiestratégico de radiocomunicación entre Drones y Sensores en grandes terrenos abruptos y boscosos
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 
Abstract: This article presents a radio frequency system that can be used to perform precise vertical landings of drones. The system is based on the three-way phase shift detection of a signal transmitted from the landing point. The antenna system is designed by taking into account parameters such as landing tracking area, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution, phase detector output range, antenna polarization, and the effect of antenna axial ratio. The fabricated prototype consists of a landing point antenna that transmits a signal at 2.46 GHz, as well as a drone triantenna system that includes a phase shift detection circuitry, ADC, and a simple control program that provides the correction instructions for landing. The prototype provides an averaged output data rate (ODR) suitable for landing maneuvers (>300 Hz). A simple system calibration procedure (detector output zeroing) is performed by aligning the antenna system. The measurements performed at different altitudes demonstrate both the correct operation of the proposed solution and its viability as an instrument for precision vertical landings.
ISSN: 0018-9456
DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2022.3196949
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