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Title: Dietary supplementation of Bacillus velezensis improves Vibrio anguillarum clearance in European sea bass by activating essential innate immune mechanisms
Authors: Monzón Atienza, Luis Ernesto 
Bravo García, Jimena 
Fernández Montero, Álvaro 
Charlie-Silva, Ives
Montero Vítores, Daniel 
Ramos Vivas, Jose 
Galindo-Villegas, Jorge
Acosta Arbelo, Félix Antonio 
UNESCO Clasification: 310502 Piscicultura
310903 Inmunología
Keywords: Candida Albicans
Dicentrarchus Labrax
Innate Mechanisms, et al
Issue Date: 2022
Journal: Fish and Shellfish Immunology 
Abstract: Bacillus spp. supplementation as probiotics in cultured fish diets has a long history of safe and effective use. Specifically, B. velezensis show great promise in fine-tuning the European sea bass disease resistance against the pathogenicity caused by several members of the Vibrio family. However, the immunomodulatory mechanisms behind this response remain poorly understood. Here, to examine the inherent immune variations in sea bass, two equal groups were fed for 30 days with a steady diet, with one treatment supplemented with B. velezensis. The serum bactericidal capacity against live cells of Vibrio anguillarum strain 507 and the nitric oxide and lysozyme lytic activities were assayed. At the cellular level, the phagocytic response of peripheral blood leukocytes against inactivated Candida albicans was determined. Moreover, head-kidney (HK) total leukocytes were isolated from previously in vivo treated fish with LPS of V. anguillarum strain 507. Mechanistically, the expression of some essential proinflammatory genes (interleukin-1 (il1b), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnfa), and cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2) and the sea bass specific antimicrobial peptide (AMP) dicentracin (dic) expressions were assessed. Surprisingly, the probiotic supplementation significantly increased all humoral lytic and cellular activities assayed in the treated sea bass. In addition, time-dependent differences were observed between the control and probiotic treated groups for all the HK genes markers subjected to the sublethal LPS dose. Although the il1b was the fastest responding gene to a significant level at 48 h post-injection (hpi), all the other genes followed 72 h in the probiotic supplemented group. Finally, an in vivo bacteria challenge against live V. anguillarum was conducted. The probiotic fed fish observed a significantly higher survival. Overall, our results provide clear vertical evidence on the beneficial immune effects of B. velezensis and unveil some fundamental immune mechanisms behind its application as a probiotic agent in intensively cultured European sea bass.
ISSN: 1050-4648
DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2022.03.032
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology [ISSN 1050-4648], v. 124, p. 244-253, (Mayo 2022)
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