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Title: On the characterization of roughness and geometrical irregularities of additively manufactured single titanium-alloy struts
Authors: Vanderesse, Nicolas
Bocher, Philippe
Nuño, Natalia
Yánez Santana, Manuel Alejandro 
Hof, Lucas A.
UNESCO Clasification: 331324 Maquinaria de impresión y reproducción
3313 Tecnología e ingeniería mecánicas
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing
Single Struts
Surface Characterization
Surface Granulometry, et al
Issue Date: 2022
Journal: Additive Manufacturing 
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to expose data analysis techniques based on X-ray computed microtomography (XCT) for measuring the complex geometric characteristics of millimeter-sized specimens fabricated by additive manufacturing, and their modification induced by surface treatment. A set of Ti-6Al-4V struts was produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM) at two angles, at 45° and vertically. They were scanned by XCT before and after electropolishing (EP). Extensive analysis allowed for measuring the amount and size of partially melted particles attached to the surface, the cross-section geometry along the axis of the strut, and the roughness over the whole surface at the micrometer scale. The variation of these characteristics was correlated to the EP conditions. The accuracy of the roughness values measured by XCT was validated by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. The as-built 45° specimens showed the usual characteristics of EBM fabricated struts, such as elongated cross-sections, and a smooth overhanging surface. Less expected was the increased roughness on the lateral sides of these specimens, rather than on the underhanging sides. Similarly, the vertically fabricated struts showed a moderate, yet measurable, roughness variation over their circumference. Despite this lack of uniformity, all the specimens fabricated at a given angle were remarkably similar. The average quantities and sizes of attached particles were quantified for all conditions. The amount of removed material after EP correlated well with the total exchanged electric charge related to the formation of tetravalent Ti4+ ions. Local SEM observations before and after EP put into evidence the removal of partially melted particles.
ISSN: 2214-8604
DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2022.102731
Source: Additive Manufacturing [EISSN 2214-8604], v. 54, 102731, (Junio 2022)
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