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Title: Comparative study of organic contaminants in agricultural soils at the archipelagos of the Macaronesia
Authors: Acosta Dacal, Andrea Carolina 
Hernández Marrero, María Eugenia 
Rial Berriel, Cristian Javier 
Díaz-Díaz, Ricardo
Bernal-Suárez, María del Mar
Zumbado Peña, Manuel Luis 
Henríquez Hernández, Luis Alberto 
Domínguez Boada, Luis María 
Pérez Luzardo, Octavio Luis 
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
3214 Toxicología
3212 Salud pública
Keywords: Anticoagulant Rodenticides (Ars)
Compounds Of Emerging Concern (Cecs)
Environmental Monitoring
Persistent Organic Pollutants (Pops)
Pesticides, et al
Issue Date: 2022
Project: Agricultura y salubridad alimentaria en la Macaronesia: Residuos de productos fitosanitarios, micotoxinas y metales pesados en frutas, hortalizas, cereales y vino. Evaluación de la ingesta e impacto en la salud de la población 
Journal: Environmental Pollution 
Abstract: The occurrence of organic pollutants in soil is a major environmental concern. These compounds can reach the soil in different ways. Point sources, related to pesticides that are used intentionally, can be applied directly to the soil, or reach the soil indirectly due to application to the aerial parts of crops. On the other hand, non-point sources, which reach soils collaterally during irrigation and/or fertilization, or due to the proximity of plots to industrialized urban centers. Long-range transport of global organic pollutants must also be taken into account. In this study, 218 pesticides, 49 persistent organic pollutants, 37 pharmaceutical active compounds and 6 anticoagulant rodenticides were analyzed in 139 agricultural soil samples collected between 2018 and 2020 in the Macaronesia. This region comprised four inhabited archipelagos (Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira) for which agriculture is an important and traditional economic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the levels of organic compound contamination of agricultural soils of the Macaronesia. As expected, the most frequently detected compounds were pesticides, mainly fungicides and insecticides. The Canary Islands presented the highest number of residues, with particularly high concentrations of DDT metabolites (p,p’ DDE: 149.5 ± 473.4 ng g−1; p,p’ DDD: 16.6 ± 35.6 ng g−1) and of the recently used pesticide fenbutatin oxide (302.1 ± 589.7 ng g−1). Cape Verde was the archipelago with the least contaminated soils. Very few pharmaceutical active compounds have been detected in all archipelagos (eprinomectin, fenbendazole, oxfendazole and sulfadiazine). These results highlight the need to promote soil monitoring programs and to establish maximum residue limits in soils, which currently do not exist at either continental or local level.
ISSN: 0269-7491
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.118979
Source: Environmental Pollution[ISSN 0269-7491],v. 301:118979, (Mayo 2022)
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