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Title: Thermodynamic Limitations and Exergy Analysis of Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination Process
Authors: Alsarayreh, AA
Al-Obaidi, MA
Ruiz García, Alejandro 
Patel, R
Mujtaba, IM
UNESCO Clasification: 3308 Ingeniería y tecnología del medio ambiente
330304 Separación química
332810 Filtración
330806 Regeneración del agua
Keywords: Desalination
Brackish water
Reverse osmosis
Exergy analysis
Exergy distribution
Issue Date: 2022
Journal: Membranes 
Abstract: The reverse osmosis (RO) process is one of the most popular membrane technologies for the generation of freshwater from seawater and brackish water resources. An industrial scale RO desalination consumes a considerable amount of energy due to the exergy destruction in several units of the process. To mitigate these limitations, several colleagues focused on delivering feasible options to resolve these issues. Most importantly, the intention was to specify the most units responsible for dissipating energy. However, in the literature, no research has been done on the analysis of exergy losses and thermodynamic limitations of the RO system of the Arab Potash Company (APC). Specifically, the RO system of the APC is designed as a medium-sized, multistage, multi pass spiral wound brackish water RO desalination plant with a capacity of 1200 m3/day. Therefore, this paper intends to fill this gap and critically investigate the distribution of exergy destruction by incorporating both physical and chemical exergies of several units and compartments of the RO system. To carry out this study, a sub-model of exergy analysis was collected from the open literature and embedded into the original RO model developed by the authors of this study. The simulation results explored the most sections that cause the highest energy destruction. Specifically, it is confirmed that the major exergy destruction happens in the product stream with 95.8% of the total exergy input. However, the lowest exergy destruction happens in the mixing location of permeate of the first pass of RO desalination system with 62.28% of the total exergy input.
ISSN: 2077-0375
DOI: 10.3390/membranes12010011
Source: Membranes [ISSN 2077-0375], v. 12 (1), 11, (Enero 2022)
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