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Title: Recent Trends in SST, Chl-a, Productivity and Wind Stress in Upwelling and Open Ocean Areas in the Upper Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
Authors: Siemer, J. P.
Machín Jiménez, Francisco José 
González Vega, Alba 
Arrieta, J. M.
Gutiérrez-Guerra, M. A.
Pérez Hernández, María Dolores 
Vélez Belchí,Pedro 
Hernández Guerra, Alonso 
Fraile Nuez,Eugenio 
UNESCO Clasification: 251008 Interacciones mar-aire
Keywords: Canary Upwelling System
North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
Productivity Trends
Sst Trends
Upwelling Intensification, et al
Issue Date: 2021
Journal: Journal of geophysical research. Oceans 
Abstract: The global upper ocean has been warming during the last decades accompanied with a chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and productivity decrease. Whereas subtropical gyres show similar trends, Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are thought to increase in productivity due to increased trade winds. This study analyzes recent trends in sea surface temperature (SST), Chl-a, net primary production (NPP) and meridional wind stress in the Eastern North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASE) in order to examine if the global trends can be detected in open ocean and upwelling areas and how the ocean biota responds. Satellite data of such variables of the last 15–40 years were analyzed to calculate mean trends in upwelling areas in the Canary upwelling system and open ocean areas around the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Our results show significant warming in the area with a maximum of 2.7°C per century for the Azores. Moreover, a general decreasing trend for Chl-a and NPP seems to be more evident in the permanent upwelling areas, which will be responsible for a loss of 0.13% of the global NPP per century. Our results also highlight a significant expansion of the oceanic desert area of 10% with an increase in unproductive days of up to 84 days in the last 20 years. The competitive relationship of stratification and wind stress in the Canary upwelling system might be a more plausible explanation for the decrease in Chl-a and NPP in upwelling areas linked to the increase in upwelling favorable wind stress and the surface warming.
ISSN: 2169-9275
DOI: 10.1029/2021JC017268
Source: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans [ISSN 2169-9275], v. 126 (8), e2021JC017268, (Agosto 2021)
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