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Title: Long-term observations of the East Madagascar Undercurrent
Authors: Ponsoni, L.
Aguiar González, Miguel Borja 
Maas, L. R.M.
van Aken, H. M.
Ridderinkhof, H.
UNESCO Clasification: 2510 Oceanografía
251008 Interacciones mar-aire
Keywords: Bi-monthly variability
East Madagascar Current
East Madagascar Undercurrent
Indian Ocean
Semi-annual variability, et al
Issue Date: 2015
Journal: Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 
Abstract: An array of five moorings was deployed at 23°S off eastern Madagascar and maintained for about 2.5years as part of the "INdian-ATlantic EXchange in present and past climate" (INATEX) experiment. The observations reveal a recurrent equatorward undercurrent (during 692 of 888days), the East Madagascar Undercurrent (EMUC), flowing below the poleward surface East Madagascar Current (EMC). The average core of the undercurrent was found near the continental slope, at a depth of 1260m and at an approximate distance of 29km from the coast, with mean velocities of 6.4 (±4.8)cms-1. Maximum speeds reach 20cms-1. The mean equatorward volume transport is estimated to be 1.33 (±1.41)Sv with maxima up to 6Sv. The baroclinic/barotropic partitioning of the geostrophic flow shows a persistent equatorward baroclinic velocity in the undercurrent core, which is sometimes inhibited by a stronger poleward barotropic contribution. The wavelet spectrum analysis of the transport time series displays two dominant frequency bands: (i) nearly bi-monthly (46-79days), previously observed in the surface EMC, and attributed to the forcing of barotropic waves generated in the Mascarene Basin; and (ii) nearly semi-annual (132-187days), which seems to be related to the semi-annual cycle in the equatorial winds near the Indian Ocean eastern boundary. A historical dataset of temperature-salinity Argo profiles was used to investigate the spatial variability of the thermohaline properties at intermediate levels. Lastly, Argo-derived velocities suggest an undercurrent flowing upstream until approximately 17°S.
ISSN: 0967-0637
DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2015.02.004
Source: Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers [ISSN 0967-0637], V. 100, p. 64-78
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