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Title: The economic impact of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in Spain
Authors: Pinilla Domínguez, Jaime 
Barber Pérez, Patricia Lucía 
Vallejo Torres, Laura 
Rodríguez Mireles, Silvia 
González Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz 
Serra Majem, Luis 
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
3212 Salud pública
Keywords: Bayesian Structural Time Series
Economic Impact
Issue Date: 2021
Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 
Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit both the Spanish economy and the popula-tion’s health hard. The result is an unprecedented economic and social crisis due to uncertainty about the remedy and the socioeconomic effects on people’s lives. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the macroeconomic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 using key indicators of the Spanish economy for the 17 Autonomous Communities (ACs) of the country. National statistics were examined in the search for impacts or anomalies occurring since the beginning of the pandemic. To estimate the strength of the impact on each of the indicators analyzed, we used Bayesian structural time series. We also calculated the correlation between the rate of GDP decline during 2020 and the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the ACs. Results: In 2020, the cumulative impact on the gross domestic product was of −11.41% (95% credible interval: −13.46; −9.29). The indicator for business turnover changed by −9.37% (−12.71; −6.07). The Spanish employment market was strongly affected; our estimates showed a cumulative increase of 11.9% (4.27; 19.45) in the rate of unemployment during 2020. The worst indicators were recorded in the ACs most economically dependent on the services sector. There was no statistical association between the incidence of COVID-19 in 2020 and the fall in GDP in the ACs. Conclusions: Our estimates portray a dramatic situation in Spain, where the COVID-19 crisis has had more serious economic and health consequences than in other European countries. The productive system in Spain is too dependent on sectors vulnerable to the pandemic, and it is necessary to design and implement pro-found changes through the European Next Generation program.
ISSN: 1661-7827
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18094708
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [ISSN 1661-7827], v. 18 (9), 4708, (Mayo 2021)
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