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Title: Infrared Illumination and Subcutaneous Venous Network: Can it be of Help for the Study of CEAP C1 Limbs?
Authors: Ortega Santana, Francisco 
Hernández Morera, Pablo Vicente 
Ruano Ferrer, Fátima De La Cruz 
Ortega-Centol, Aritz
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
320109 Oftalmología
2410 Biología humana
Keywords: C0A limbs
C1 limbs
Near-infrared illumination
Subcutaneous veins visualisation
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 
Abstract: Objective The subcutaneous venous network (SVN) is difficult to see with the naked eye. Near infrared illumination (NIr-I) claims to improve this. The aims of this observational study were to investigate whether there are differences between the different methods; to quantify the length and diameter of SVNs; and to confirm if they differ between C0A and C1 CEAP limbs. Methods In total, 4 796 images, half of them from the visible spectrum (VS) and the other half from the nearninfrared spectrum (NIrS), belonging to 109 females (C0A: n = 50; C1 CEAP: n = 59) were used to establish the morphological characteristics of the SVN by visual analysis. With Photoshop CS4, SVN diameters and lengths were obtained by digital analysis of 3 052 images, once the images of whole extremities were excluded. Results On NIr-I, the diameters, trajectories, and colouration of SVNs of C1 limbs appeared more irregular than SVNs of C0A limbs. Compared with the VS images, NIr-I allowed visualisation of a greater length of the SVN in both groups (p < .010). This capacity varied from 2.6 ± 0.9 times (C1) to 16.2 ± 11.9 (C0A). While the SVN length seen in the VS images from C1 limbs was greater than observed in C0A limbs (p < .001), differences between NIr-I images only existed in the lateral part of the lower leg (p = .016). With NIr-I, the median diameter of the C1 CEAP SVN veins was 5.8 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 4.3–7.5 mm), while the median diameter in C0A SVN limbs was 2.6 mm (IQR 2.0–3.6 mm) (p < .001). Conclusion The NIr-I reveals the characteristics of the SVN better than the naked eye. Further studies are required to determine the significance of the changes in the SVN in C0A and C1 limbs, and the factors causing them.
ISSN: 1078-5884
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.11.034
Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery [1078-5884], v. 59(4), p. 625-634
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