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Title: Association between Heavy Metals and Rare Earth Elements with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study Conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain)
Authors: Medina Estévez, Amaro Florián 
Zumbado Peña, Manuel Luis 
Pérez Luzardo, Octavio Luis 
Rodríguez Hernández, Ángel 
Domínguez Boada, Luis María 
Fernández-Fuertes, Fernando
Santandreu Jiménez, María Elvira 
Henríquez Hernández, Luis Alberto 
UNESCO Clasification: 32 Ciencias médicas
3214 Toxicología
310907 Patología
Keywords: Case-control study
Cerebrovascular accident
Heavy metal
Rare earth element
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Toxics 
Abstract: The role of inorganic elements as risk factors for stroke has been suggested. We designed a case-control study to explore the role of 45 inorganic elements as factors associated with stroke in 92 patients and 83 controls. Nineteen elements were detected in >80% of patients and 21 were detected in >80% of controls. Blood level of lead was significantly higher among patients (11.2 vs. 9.03 ng/mL) while gold and cerium were significantly higher among controls (0.013 vs. 0.007 ng/mL; and 18.0 vs. 15.0 ng/mL). Lead was associated with stroke in univariate and multivariate analysis (OR = 1.65 (95% CI, 1.09-2.50) and OR = 1.91 (95% CI, 1.20-3.04), respectively). Gold and cerium showed an inverse association with stroke in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95) and OR = 0.50 (95% CI, 0.31-0.78)). Future studies are needed to elucidate the potential sources of exposure and disclose the mechanisms of action.
ISSN: 2305-6304
DOI: 10.3390/toxics8030066
Source: Toxics [2305-6304], v. 8(3), 66
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