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Title: Comparative immunopathology of cetacean morbillivirus infection in free-ranging dolphins from Western Mediterranean, Northeast-Central, and Southwestern Atlantic
Authors: Diaz Delgado, Josue 
Groch, Kátia R.
Ressio, Rodrigo
Riskallah, Isis P.J.
Sierra Pulpillo, Eva María 
Sacchini , Simona 
Quesada Canales, Ildefonso Óscar 
Arbelo Hernández, Manuel Antonio 
Fernández Rodríguez, Antonio Jesús 
Santos-Neto, Elitieri
Ikeda, Joana
de Carvalho, Rafael Ramos
de Freitas Azevedo, Alexandre
Lailson-Brito, Jose
Flach, Leonardo
Kanamura, Cristina T.
Fernandes, Natália C.C.A.
Cogliati, Bruno
Centelleghe, Cinzia
Mazzariol, Sandro
Di Renzo, Ludovica
Di Francesco, Gabriella
Di Guardo, Giovanni
Catão-Dias, José Luiz
UNESCO Clasification: 3105 Peces y fauna silvestre
310907 Patología
Keywords: Apoptosis
Cetacean Morbillivirus
Immunopathogenesis, et al
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Frontiers In Immunology 
Abstract: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV; Paramyxoviridae) causes epizootic and interepizootic fatalities in odontocetes and mysticetes worldwide. Studies suggest there is different species-specific susceptibility to CeMV infection, with striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) ranking among the most susceptible cetacean hosts. The pathogenesis of CeMV infection is not fully resolved. Since no previous studies have evaluated the organ-specific immunopathogenetic features of CeMV infection in tissues from infected dolphins, this study was aimed at characterizing and comparing immunophenotypic profiles of local immune responses in lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen), lung and CNS in CeMV-molecularly (RT-PCR)-positive cetaceans from Western Mediterranean, Northeast-Central, and Southwestern Atlantic. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses targeted molecules of immunologic interest: caspase 3, CD3, CD20, CD57, CD68, FoxP3, MHCII, Iba1, IFNγ, IgG, IL4, IL10, lysozyme, TGFβ, and PAX5. We detected consistent CeMV-associated inflammatory response patterns. Within CNS, inflammation was dominated by CD3+ (T cells), and CD20+ and PAX5+ (B cells) lymphocytes, accompanied by fewer Iba1+, CD68+, and lysozyme+ histiocytes, mainly in striped dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. Multicentric lymphoid depletion was characterized by reduced numbers of T cells and B cells, more pronounced in Guiana dolphins. Striped dolphins and bottlenose dolphins often had hyperplastic (regenerative) phenomena involving the aforementioned cell populations, particularly chronically infected animals. In the lung, there was mild to moderate increase in T cells, B cells, and histiocytes. Additionally, there was a generalized increased expression of caspase 3 in lymphoid, lung, and CNS tissues. Apoptosis, therefore, is believed to play a major role in generalized lymphoid depletion and likely overt immunosuppression during CeMV infection. No differences were detected regarding cytokine immunoreactivity in lymph nodes, spleen, and lung from infected and non-infected dolphins by semiquantitative analysis; however, there was striking immunoreactivity for IFNγ in the CNS of infected dolphins. These novel results set the basis for tissue-specific immunophenotypic responses during CeMV infection in three highly susceptible delphinid species. They also suggest a complex interplay between viral and host's immune factors, thereby contributing to gain valuable insights into similarities, and differences of CeMV infection's immunopathogenesis in relation to body tissues, CeMV strains, and cetacean hosts.
ISSN: 1664-3224
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00485
Source: Frontiers in Immunology [ISSN 1664-3224], v. 10 (Marzo 2019)
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