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Title: Underwater electromagnetic sensor networks—part I: Link characterization
Authors: Perez-Alvarez, Ivan 
Quintana-Díaz, Gara
Mena-Rodríguez, Pablo 
Jiménez Yguacel, Eugenio 
Dorta-Naranjo, B. Pablo 
Pérez, M.
Quevedo, Eduardo 
Cardona Díaz, Laura
Hernández Brito, José Joaquín 
UNESCO Clasification: 2202 Electromagnetismo
120325 Diseño de sistemas sensores
2510 Oceanografía
Keywords: Antennas
Sea water
Simulations, et al
Issue Date: 2017
Journal: Sensors 
Abstract: Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) using electromagnetic (EM) technology in marine shallow waters are examined, not just for environmental monitoring but for further interesting applications. Particularly, the use of EM waves is reconsidered in shallow waters due to the benefits offered in this context, where acoustic and optical technologies have serious disadvantages. Sea water scenario is a harsh environment for radiocommunications, and there is no standard model for the underwater EM channel. The high conductivity of sea water, the effect of seabed and the surface make the behaviour of the channel hard to predict. This justifies the need of link characterization as the first step to approach the development of EM underwater sensor networks. To obtain a reliable link model, measurements and simulations are required. The measuring setup for this purpose is explained and described, as well as the procedures used. Several antennas have been designed and tested in low frequency bands. Agreement between attenuation measurements and simulations at different distances was analysed and made possible the validation of simulation setups and the design of different communications layers of the system. This leads to the second step of this work, where data and routing protocols for the sensor network are examined.
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s17010189
Source: Sensors (Switzerland) [ISSN 1424-8220], v. 17 (1), Article number 189
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