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Title: Combination of microwave-assisted micellar extraction with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in coastal marine sediments and sewage sludges samples
Authors: Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah 
Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida 
Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan 
UNESCO Clasification: 2301 química analítica
Keywords: Microwave‐assisted extraction
Liquid chromatography
Mass spectrometry
Micellar media
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: 0269-3879
Project: Desarrollo de Nuevas Estrategias de Extracción en El Análisis de Residuos Farmacéuticos.Implementación en Muestras Reales de Interés Medioambiental. 
Journal: Biomedical Chromatography 
Abstract: In this work, a method for the analysis of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using microwave‐assisted micellar extraction combined with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry detection has been developed. Different surfactants were tested for use as extractants in the isolation of the analytes from solid samples, and several experimental designs were evaluated for the determination and optimization of the variables that affect recovery from the matrix. Under optimal conditions, we obtained recoveries greater than 73% with relative standard deviations below 8%. Compounds were detected by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with detection limits between 0.15 and 0.55 ng g−1 and quantification limits between 0.49 and 1.85 ng g−1. Finally, the optimized method was applied in the determination of antibiotics in real solid samples. Four fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin) were found in coastal marine sediments taken close to a marine outfall and in sewage sludge samples from a wastewater treatment plant. Concentrations ranged between 0.81 and 34.3 ng g−1 in the sediments and 3.43 and 206.1 ng g−1 in the sludge. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISSN: 0269-3879
DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1621
Source: Biomedical Chromatography [ISSN 0269-3879], v. 26, p. 33-40
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