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Title: Nutritional adequacy according to carbohydrates and fat quality
Authors: Sánchez-Tainta, A.
Zazpe, I.
Bes-Rastrollo, M.
Salas-Salvadó, J.
Bullo, M.
Sorlí, J.V.
Corella, D.
Covas, M.I.
Arós, F.
Gutierrez-Bedmar, M.
Fiol, M.
de la Corte, F.G.
Serra Majem, Luis 
Pinto, X.
Schröeder, H.
Ros, E.
López-Sabater, M.C.
Estruch, R.
Martínez-González, M.A.
UNESCO Clasification: 3206 Ciencias de la nutrición
320608 Nutrientes
Keywords: Carbohydrate quality
Fat quality
Mediterranean diet
Micronutrient adequacy
Issue Date: 2016
Journal: European Journal of Nutrition 
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the association between carbohydrate quality, fat quality or adherence to the Mediterranean diet and intake adequacy of 19 micronutrients in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel group and primary prevention trial conducted in Spain. Methods: We assessed baseline dietary intake of 6,542 elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk through a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) score. We used a multidimensional carbohydrate quality index (CQI) using four criteria and a fat quality index (FQI) according to the ratio (MUFA + PUFA)/(SFA + TFA). The probability of intake adequacy was calculated comparing the intakes to DRI, and also using the probabilistic approach. Absolute and adjusted probability of having inadequate intake for either ≥6 DRI or ≥8 DRI were estimated to assess nutritional adequacy according to quintiles of each index. Results: The lowest prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake (≥8 DRI) was found in the highest quintile of CQI or Med-diet score, and in the lowest quintile of FQI (adjusted fold risk: 1.4, 3.4 and 10.2 respectively in comparison with the lowest quintile). P for trend <0.001 in three multivariable models. A higher CQI or Med-Diet score and a lower FQI were significantly associated with a lower fold risk of unmet EAR values. Conclusions: A multidimensional assessment of CQI can be a useful tool to evaluate the quality of carbohydrates. This score and a 14-item Med-diet score were positively related to overall micronutrient adequacy in elderly participants.
ISSN: 1436-6207
DOI: 10.1007/s00394-014-0828-3
Source: European Journal of Nutrition [ISSN 1436-6207], v. 55 (1), p. 93-106
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